From Association of Independent Readers and Rootworkers
Tasseomancy is probably as old as the invention of drinking cups. Some claim it originated in China, the region where tea was first commercially grown, but it seems to have been an ongoing form of divination in Scotland, Ireland, and England before trade with China developed, and was probably developed for use with herbal teas. Meanwhile, it is also found in the Middle East as a method for reading coffee grounds, where tea has never been popular. Ultimately, the idea of reading a drinking cup for signs of the future is part of the cultural history of many parts of the world, and thus its invention probably dates back to early history or pre-history. As a homey and domestic form of fortune-telling, cup-reading is rarely performed at an altar, but instead is usually conducted by the reader and client in a warm, comforting, social environment.
Tea Leaf Reading (Tasseomancy)
Tea Leaf Reading, also known as Tasseomancy, is a method of divination or fortune-telling in which the seer brews a cup of tea for the client and then interprets the patterns or "signs" in the tea leaves after the client has finished drinking her tea.
History of Tea Leaf Reading (Tasseomancy)
The word Tasseomancy comes from the French "tasse" (cup) plus the Greek suffix "-mancy" (divination). Other names for Tea Leaf Reading include Cup Reading, Tasseography (literally "cup writing"), and "Tasseology" ("cup knowledge").
The earliest printed references to tea leaf reading date from the 19th century. In one book from 1899, the author, an American named John Hanley, referred to "Figures and Signs as Interpreted by Our Grandmothers," implying that the practice, in its domestic form at least, dated well back into the early 19th century.
In the early 20th century, tea leaf reading became a widespread form of divination, its popularity paralleling the development of the female suffrage movement, the temperance movement, and the movement toward economic independence for women. Women who became entrepreneurs after the First World War often opened tea rooms -- small, cozy, domestic restaurants serving light lunches and non-alcoholic beverages -- and getting one's cup read was a popular adjunct to dining out in such restaurants especially during the period between World War One and World War Two. Some tea rooms of that era featured special fortune telling waitresses, who dressed as Gypsies and offered patrons "a free reading with every meal." In some tea rooms, the "Gypsy" waitresses often also offered palm readings to guests, usually for tips.
Special Tea Cups for Tasseographic Reading
Although tea leaf reading can be performed in a plain white cup, many designers and potteries have released special "fortune telling cups" since the late 19th century. These generally fall into three types:
Astrological Cups and Saucers
Astrological cups and saucers are tea sets on which there are depictions of the signs of the Zodiac, the symbols of the planets, and other symbols from astrology. The tea leaves are read with their usual meanings, but their imagery is combined with the meanings traditionally given to the astrological symbols upon which the tea-leaf symbols lie.
Symbol Cups and Saucers
Symbol cups and saucers are tea sets that contain popular symbols from tea leaf reading and other well-known omen-symbols, such as a snake or an anchor or a horseshoe. The tea leaves are read with their usual meanings, but their imagery is combined with the meanings traditionally given to the other images upon which the tea-leaf symbols lay.
Cartomancy Cups and Saucers
Cartomancy cups and saucers are decorated with small images of scattered playing cards, usually either from a 32-card euchre deck (as used in LeNormand style card reading) or a 52 card poker deck (as used in Italian and English style card reading). The tea leaves are read with their usual meanings, but their imagery is combined with the meanings traditionally given to the playing cards upon which the tea-leaf symbols lay.
How Tea Leaf Readings are Conducted
Tea leaf reading is almost always performed in person rather than over the telephone, as it is the cup of the client or "sitter" that is read. In addition to being conducted in the home by family members or between friends, tea leaf reading is also a form of divination for which one can seek out a professional "cup reader" who will brew the tea, perhaps drink a cup while chatting with you, and then tell your fortune in the leaves.
Tea leaf reading remains a popular form of divination among women, especially those who live in Scotland, Ireland, England, Australia, Canada, and the United States.
Coffee Ground Reading
In Turkey, Lebanon, and other nations of the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where coffee drinking is traditional, readers are trained to read coffee grounds instead of tea leaves. Due to the finely ground nature of the coffee, the symbols formed in the cup will look different from those comprised of tea leaves, but the principles of reading are much the same.
History of Coffee Ground Reading
Coffee ground reading is a fortune telling tradition from North Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe and like tea leaf reading, is probably as old as coffee drinking itself. Although it is uncertain when coffee reading began, what we do know is that coffee drinking was first introduced into these areas in the 15th century in Yemen. Coffee readings are done with what is commonly referred to as “Turkish coffee,” although many cultures refer to this special finely-ground, unfiltered brew under their own country’s name; for example, in Cyprus it’s called “kypriakos kafes” (Cyprus coffee) or in Greece where it’s known as “elliniko” (Greek coffee). Coffee ground reading also has its own name in each of the countries where it is practiced, for example, it is καφεμαντεία in Greek, гледање у шољу in Serbian, and kahve falı in Turkish.
Special Tools for Coffee Ground Reading
There are many similarities between coffee reading and tea leaf reading. Like tea leaf reading, coffee readers look at the remains of the coffee grounds to see images and symbols which have significance as to the client’s current issues or future events. Coffee readings are also done in an intimate environment with the friend or client and the reader enjoying a cup together before the reading begins. However, the tools for preparing and drinking the coffee are quite different from tea leaf reading.
Coffee for Coffee Ground Reading
The coffee for a reading is prepared using regular coffee beans which have been ground into a fine powder. This coffee is prepared and served unfiltered, which allows each cup to have a residue of coffee grounds remaining to be read after the cup is finished. It is traditionally served either black or sweetened with sugar.
Coffee Pot for Coffee Ground Reading
The coffee is made using a special type of pot called a “cezve” in Turkey and an “ibrik” in most other countries. These coffee pots are sold in different sizes, with the size corresponding to the number of cups to be brewed. The coffee is heated in this pot according to recipe and cultural tradition.
Cups for Coffee Ground Reading
Traditional cups for this style of coffee are small, demitasse-style cups. For coffee readings, a white cup with sloping sides and no patterns on the inside are said to give the best results.
How Coffee Ground Readings are Conducted
A coffee ground reading begins with the ritual of the preparation of the coffee. The reader prepares the coffee for both him or herself and the client or clients, usually in accordance with a cultural or personal ritual, such as bringing the coffee just to a boil and removing it from the heat source three times. The coffee is then served and sipped by the reader and client together. When finished, the remaining coffee grounds in the client’s cup are examined closely by the reader, who looks for symbol or images which give indications of past, present and future events and interprets those symbols for the client so that he or she may use that information to their benefit.
- Divination and Fortune Telling by Psychic Cup Reading, Tea Leaf Reading, and Coffee Ground Reading